In his second encyclical, Spe Salvi, promulgated on November 30, 2007, Pope Benedict XVI discusses the themes of Christian hope, redemption, and salvation. He considers modern philosophies and the challenges of living with faith today in light of the virtue of hope. The virtue of hope is subject to harsh trials today. Believers are called to be apostles filled with a joyful hope in the promises of God. Benedict inspires with Scriptural and saintly examples in which hope seems nearly impossible but is essential to the faith. He testifies that faith and hope are intertwined and vital to the eternal life of modern Christians.